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الموضوع: Erb's Palsy

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    Erb's Palsy






    Done by: Abeer Azeemullah.
    ID : 60213.
    Doctor name : Prof. Samir Algazzar.



    Erb's Palsy


    The condition known as Erb’s Palsy is caused by an injuryto the brachial plexus—the nerves surrounding the shoulder. Erb’s Palsy is not cerebralpalsy,because it is not caused by brain injury or brain abnormalities. Erb’s Palsy isalso called brachial palsy, Erb-Duchenned paralysis, or Klumpke paralysis








    Symptomsof Erb’s Palsy

    Erb’s Palsy is characterized byweakness or paralysis of the arm. The disorder causes varying amounts ofimpairment. The levels of impairment are known by some of the other names forthe condition. When the upper arm is the only part of the limb affected, thecondition is simply called a brachial plexus injury.


    The condition is designated Erb’sparalysis when it affects moving the upper arm and rotating the lower arm. Ifthe condition affects the hand it is called Klumpke paralysis; this form of thecondition can cause the eyelid to droop on the side opposite to the affectedhand





    Causesof Erb’s Palsy

    Erb’s palsy is the result of a nerveinjury. All the arm’s nerves are connected to a group of nerves near the neckwhich is called the brachial plexus. The brachial plexus nerves are responsiblefor feeling





    and motion in the hand, fingers, and arm. Erb’s palsy canbe caused by several things which can happen during a difficult delivery
    Approximately one or two babies perthousand births will have a brachial nerve injury. The brachial nerves can beinjured if the baby’s neck and head are drawn to the side when the shouldersexit the birth canal. Pulling excessively on the shoulders as the baby comesout head first can also lead to a brachial nerve injury. During a breech birth(feet first), the arms are usually raised and may be injured from excesspressure


    Improved delivery techniques nowprevent many brachial plexus injuries. Larger than average babies are atgreater risk for this form of injury; larger than average birth weigh is calledmacrosomia and is defined as a birth weight of 8 lb, 13 oz or more. A breechbirth (the baby presenting abnormally—feet first) also puts the baby at greaterrisk of injury





    ShoulderDystocia

    Larger than average babies areespecially at risk for a problem during delivery called shoulder dystocia. Inshoulder dystocia, the infant’s head is delivered normally, but one shoulderbecomes stuck under part of the mother’s pelvic bones. This is a difficultsituation for doctors to remedy. The mother’s position will be manipulated in anattempt to free the baby’s shoulder and the doctor will also manipulate thebaby within the birth canal. If manipulation and gentle pressure fail, surgerymay be needed


    Shoulder dystocia is dangerous to boththe mother and the baby. A delivery in which shoulder dystocia occurs is mostlikely to cause injury to the brachial plexus, resulting in impaired movementof the injured arm. Women who are short or who have had gestational diabetesare at greater risk for the occurrence of shoulder dystocia. So are women withpelvic abnormalities. Prolonged labor also increases the risk


    Sometimes shoulder dystocia occurswhen it anticipated that delivery will be normal. The only thing physicians cando help prevent injury in an unexpected situation is simply to be alwaysprepared for an emergency during delivery and to have a medical team familiarwith difficult deliveries on hand during even routine deliveries


    Use of forceps or a vacuum extractorshould be avoided if possible during delivery, because use of these methodsincreases the risk of shoulder dystocia. In the case of an extra large baby ora delivery which is expected to be breech, the physician should advise themother and her family of possible problems and what may be needed to safelydeliver the baby





    Complicationsof Erb's Palsy

    Most cases of Erb’s palsy are due tostretching of the nerve and will heal within six to twelve months of delivery;stretching shocks the nerve, but rarely leaves permanent damage. Occasionally astretch injury will cause scar tissue to form around healthy nerves; in thiscase recovery may not be total.


    Cases in which the nerves are torn arethe most serious and will not completely heal on their own. In rare instancesthe nerve is actually torn apart from the spinal cord; this is called anavulsion. It is estimated that fewer than 10% of brachial plexus birth injuriesresult in permanent paralysis or impairment





    Ageof Diagnosis

    Because Erb’s palsy is caused by aninjury at birth, it is almost immediately apparent. However, the extent of theinjury may not be known for some months after the baby’s birth. Babies withErb’s palsy may lack a Moro reflex on the affected side; the Moro reflex,present in healthy newborns, occurs when the infant is startled. A startlednewborn will throw out the arms to the side with the palms up and the thumbsflexed


    A baby with Erb’s palsy may hold theaffected arm tight against the body with the elbow flexed. There may be littlespontaneous movement of the injured arm or hand. There may also be a lack ofstrength in the infant’s grip on the affected side. The affected arm maydevelop more slowly than the healthy arm and may be much smaller





    Treatments for Erb's Palsy

    In cases of a simple stretch injury ormild tear, Erb’s palsy will heal on its own, but the baby should receivephysical therapy so that the arm does not stiffen. Gentle massage and range ofmotion therapy are used to keep the muscles strong and the joint from becomingcontracted. More extensive nerve damage may require surgery. If the nervescannot function properly, tendon transplants are sometimes used


    Such options are generally notdiscussed until the child is three to six months old. Even with surgery, nerveinjuries heal very slowly and it may take two years or more for a completerecovery. In some cases, the affected arm will always be weak; the range ofmotion may also be limited




    Sources



    · “Brachial Palsyin Newborns” MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. Retrieved April 7, 2009 from theWorld Wide Web:http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001395.htm


    · Baxley,Elizabeth G., MD and Robert W. Gobbo, MD. “Shoulder Dystocia” Association ofAmerican Family Physcians. Retrieved April 7, 2009 from the World WideWeb: http://www.aafp.org/afp/20040401/1707.html


    · “Erb’sPalsy—Brachial Plexus Birth Injury” American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.Retrieved April 8, 2009 from the World Wide Web: http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=a00077




    “Cerebral Palsy: Hope ThroughResearch” National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. RetrievedMarch 27, 2009 from the World Wide Web: http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/cerebral_palsy/detail_cerebral_palsy....









































    الصور المرفقة الصور المرفقة
    التعديل الأخير تم بواسطة Abeer Almoathen ; 02-24-2013 الساعة 02:45 AM

  2. #2
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    "Larger than average babies are especially at risk for a problem during delivery called shoulder dystocia.
    In shoulder dystocia, the infant’s head is delivered normally, but one shoulder becomes stuck under part of the mother’s pelvic bones.
    This is a difficult situation for doctors to remedy.
    The mother’s position will be manipulated in an attempt to free the baby’s shoulder and the doctor will also manipulate the baby within the birth canal.
    If manipulation and gentle pressure fail, surgery may be needed.
    Shoulder dystocia is dangerous to both the mother and the baby.
    A delivery in which shoulder dystocia occurs is most likely to cause injury to the brachial plexus, resulting in impaired movement of the injured arm.
    Women who are short or who have had gestational diabetes are at greater risk for the occurrence of shoulder dystocia.
    So are women with pelvic abnormalities. Prolonged labor also increases the risk."

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    Scientific Lectures In Physiotherapy

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    Significances of Geriatric Physical Therapy
    Geriatric physical therapy MCQ
    Advises for low back pain cases
    Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Health Fact
    PLEASE THINK TWICE
    Guidelines for a Course Report
    preliminary for ACL biomechanical approach
    Effective ACL Rehabilitation-5 Phases
    ACL reconstruction using contralateral patellar tendon grafting
    Enhancing proprioceptive quality & adaptation
    TRAINING FOR PROPRIOCEPTION & FUNCTION
    Anterior cruciate ligament rehabilitation
    Management of the Ruptured ACL
    Relation between exercises & hypertension
    Exercise limitation in patients with reduced VO2max
    Objectives of the warming-up exercises
    Aerobic exercise & serum lipids
    impairment & indirect impairment
    Exercises & basal sympathetic nerve activity
    Rehabilitation MCQ Exam
    Geriatric physical therapy Exam
    Biological age groups of elderly people
    Aims of Geriatric physical therapy
    key points when working with elderly
    Respiratory Therapy for Cholecystectomy
    A Simple Outpatient Test for ACL
    (BPPV) & Vestibular rehabilitation
    Effects of Exercise Program on Bone Density
    Echocardiographic Changes
    Components of cardiac rehabilitation
    Exercises for the office
    Mechanical Therapy for Vertigo
    100 Resons - Why Exercises?
    Physical Therapy Journals
    Persistent Fatigue
    Spinal cord stimulation is an invasive technique
    Electrical nerve stimulation (TENS)
    How Do We Reduce Stress?
    Neck & Back Braces
    lack of oxygen (anoxia)
    Principles of interferential theory
    What Is Occupation & Occupational Therapy
    Spinal manipulative therapy
    STROKE IDENTIFICATION
    Physical properties of water
    Take care of your back
    Peripheral Neuropathy
    Anoxia causes Neuropathy
    Oncologic physical therapy
    Women's health physical therapy
    Home health physical therapy
    Geriatric physical therapy
    Musculoskeletal Physical Therapy
    How can a physical therapist help?
    Physical therapy treatments for dizziness
    Prevent foot discomfort in pregnancy
    Pregnant feet aches and pains
    Why pregnancy affects your feet
    Over-pronation in pregnancy
    Plantar fasciitis risk factors
    "Heel pain is very common”
    Physiotherapy for Plantar fasciitis
    Take good care of our knees
    KNEE JOINT EXAMINATION
    Knee Problems HISTORY-TAKING
    The knee Joint Structure
    Five steps for health heart
    Basis of a healthy diet
    lifestyle and heart disease
    exercise tips for heart failure
    heart Rehabilitation
    12 steps towards a healthy heart
    Cerebral Palsy Treatment
    What do physiotherapists do?
    Physiotherapy science and skills
    Myofascial trigger points
    Phantom sensations
    postherpetic neuralgia
    Physiotherapy Treatment for Frozen Shoulder
    الوسائل العلاجية في الطب البديل
    اسباب انخفاض ضغط الدم
    العلاج الطبيعي لالم الظهر
    المثانة وآلية التحكم بالبول
    صلاة المسافر والمريض
    الأضرار التي تصيب كل من يدمن على التدخين :
    حاسة الشم والسمع والبصر
    مراحل الحمل الثلاث
    حقائق طبية مذهلة
    الطب الوقائي
    الصوم وقاية وعلاجاً من أمراض كثيرة
    الهيكل العظمي
    High heels could be bad for your health
    Aerobics improves mental fitness in the elderly
    Exercise is natural pain reliever for arthritis
    Behavioral Treatment for Tourette Syndrome
    Tourette Syndrome
    What is Multiple Sclerosis
    Arthritis is a form of Joint Disorder
    Ultrasound Therapy For Soft Tissue Injuries
    Posterior Shoulder Instability: Diagnosis and Management
    Physiotherapy provide effective treatment
    Physiotherapists assist people with movement disorders
    Problems treated by physiotherapy
    Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition Disease
    Gout
    Gonococcal Arthritis
    Lyme Disease
    Nongonococcal Infectious Arthritis
    Urinary Incontinence
    Anorexia Nervosa
    Osteoarthritis - OA
    Meningitis
    Exercise Program improves arthritis patients
    Restore movement after spinal cord damage
    آلام الرقبة وعلاجها وكيفية التعايش معها
    نصائح للتغلب على الألم
    تأثير المسكنات على الدماغ
    الوحدة تؤدي إلى الوفاة المبكرة
    تقليل الملح يقلل من حالات سرطان المعدة
    تقليل ساعات الجلوس يطيل العمر
    الشاي يوازي فعالية المضادات الحيوية
    الموز بديلاً طبيعياً للعقاقير المنومة
    تغير نظام العمل يضر القلب
    Flat Feet (Pes Planus)
    Diabetic Foot Pain Symptoms
    Ball Of Foot Pain
    Painful Arches Of The Feet
    Child Heel Pain Causes And Treatments
    Build Muscle Fast
    نصائح ذهبيّة لريجيم ناجح
    دوالي الاوردة - دوالي الساقين Varicose veins
    خفض وزنك بالمشروبات
    Pain is more a cause of arthritis than a symptom
    Rheumatoid arthritis patient numbers rise two-folds
    Exercises that can help treat arthritis
    متلازمة رايتر Reiter’s Syndrome
    فوائد العلاج المائي
    المشي يفيد عضلة القلب
    الأرق .. عند النساء أكثر من الرجال
    فرصة الاقلاع عن التدخين في رمضان
    فرط الحركة وقلة النشاط
    موجات الهواتف النقالة ( الخلوية ) تؤثر على نشاط خلايا الدماغ
    الإفراط في الأكل نوع من أنواع الإدمان
    الغذاء يؤثر على نفسية الإنسان وعقله
    الشاي يوميا يحميك من النوبات القلبية
    عجائب جهاز المناعة في جسم الإنسان
    أعراض وعلاج المشي أثناء النوم …
    Exercise For Height Gains
    Retro Patellar Knee Pain
    Your physical therapist
    Principles and Indication of Iontophoresis
    Electrotherapy - General Therapeutic Uses
    pulsed compression therapy
    CPM - Continuous Passive Motion
    Mechanical or electrical table
    Neck and Lumbar braces
    مواقع تشريح ممتازة - Anatomy Websites
    Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation for Low Back Pain
    Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation for Frozen Shoulder
    Stress doesn’t only affect the mind
    Nutrition Basics
    افضل الجامعات العربية بين 500 جامعة بالعالم عام 2012
    أفضل 10 جامعات من ناحية التصنيف الأكاديمي عام 2012
    THE PILGRIMAGE OF ISLAM
    Five Pillars of Islam
    Back pain during pregnancy
    cardiac rehab
    Aquatic Therapy - Clinical Guide Lines
    Electrical stimulation
    ماذا يفعل الطبيب لو حضر محتضرا ؟
    Arthritis
    عزيزي الإنسان
    Kinesio Taping is a physiotherapy - March 5-8
    Hot Therapy
    Positive training experience
    Compression therapy
    CPM
    Principles and Clinical application of Iontophoresis
    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation
    Interferential therapy
    INTERPRETING DATA ON AGING
    Rehabilitation Goals
    The process of ageing
    Electrotherapy Treatment for Psoriasis
    Electrotherapy in Physiotherapy
    Physiotherapy Measures for Calcaneal Spurs
    Physicaltherapy Measures for Planter Fascitis
    Physicaltherapy Measures for Flat Foot
    Physicaltherapy Measures for Scoliosis
    Physiotherapy Measures for cauda equina compression
    Physicaltherapy Measures for Spondylolisthesis
    Physiotherapy Measures for Spondylosis
    Goals Of Physiotherapy for Low Back Ache
    Physiotherapy Treatment for Trapezitis
    PT for DE QUERVAINS AND TRIGGER FINGER
    Physiotherapy for Carpel Tunnel
    PT for Frozen Shoulder/Peri Arthritis/Adhesive Capsulitis
    Physicaltherapy for Tennis Elbow
    PHYSIOTHERAPY measures for Tendinitis
    physiotherapy for Rotator Cuff Tear
    Physicaltherapy Principles for Sports Injuries
    Physiotherapy for Osteoarthritis
    Physicaltherapy for Rhemutoid Arthritis
    مقومات الشخصية الايجابية
    Neuropathic - MYOFASCIAL - Pain
    Phantom sensations after Amputation
    Ethical Issues Facing Health Care Professionals
    Running Related Injuries
    Massage list of benefits
    Pilates exercise programme
    Benefits of Training
    Ante Natal and Post Natal Exercise programme
    Parkinsons Disease Rehabilitation
    Physiotherapy for brachial plexus injury
    Physiotherapy for Peripheral Nerve Injuries
    PHYSICALTHERAPY for Cerebellar Ataxia
    PHYSIOTHERAPY MEASURES for Cerebral Palsy/Delayed Milestones
    PHYSIOTHERAPY MEASURES for STROKE
    Physiotherapy Measures forTorticollis
    Hip Replacement
    Iontophoresis
    Didynamic Current
    Traction
    نماذج اختبارات لطلاب العلاج الطبيعى
    Exercise Physiology
    Sprains and Strains
    Doctor Patient Relationship
    مواقع علمية و بحثية مهمة
    مواقع علمية مفيدة لطلاب السنة التحضيرية
    Rehabilitation for Common Conditions
    Physiotherapist with Elderly
    NORMAL CHANGES OF AGING
    Clinical Decision-Making
    Difference between Cold and H1N1
    Effects of Aerobic Exercises
    High Voltage Pulsed Galvanic Stimulation
    Vascular Examination
    Faradic & Galvanic Currents
    Heel pain and calcaneal spurs
    Arthritis: Not Just For the Elderly
    Exercises for Scoliosis
    اختناق العصب الأوسط - Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
    Cervical Spondylosis - Arthritis of the Neck
    Cervical Spine Special Tests
    SPINAL CORD INJURY
    Facial paralysis
    Peripheral Nerve Injuries
    Congenital Hip Dislocation
    POLIOMYELITIS
    Physiotherapy Abbreviations
    Short Wave Diathermy - SWD
    PARAFFIN WAX BATH
    Sinusoidal Current
    Training Principles and Effects
    Physical Therapy Dictionary
    Posture and Ergonomics
    CAWTHORNE-COOKSEY EXERCISES
    Physical Overtraining
    Warm - Up Exercises
    Exercise and Diabetes
    Physiological Effects of Water
    Aquatic Therapy
    ERGONOMICS FOR SAFE LIFE
    Cardiac Rehabilitation
    Ergonomics & Exercises
    Spinal Traction
    Back Care When Pregnant
    Advises for low back pain cases
    (100) REASONS TO EXERCISE
    EXERCISE GUIDELINES
    Cervical Biomechanics
    Rehabilitation Data
    THE BIOLOGY OF AGING
    Physiology for PT Students
    THE BIOLOGY OF AGING
    GERIATRIC PHYSICAL THERAPY
    Muscles Test
    Low Back Pain
    Frozen Shoulder
    Repetitive Strain Injuries
    Rehabilitation Preamble
    Shoulder Muscle Test
    Paraffin and Hot Bath
    Hot Pack
    Introduction to Heat
    Chondromalacia
    Shoulder Impingement Syndrome
    Aging History
    Rehabilitation of Vestibular Dysfunction
    Achilles Tendon: Tendinitis and Tears
    Height Enhancer Foods
    Fractures Wrist Lead to Disability in Women
    Extend Lifespan with Diet and Exercise
    “ root cause of aging ”
    Flying Dangers of Airline Food
    Basics of Raw Food Diet Benefits
    Benefits of Bike Riding for Your Health
    Benefits of Exercise
    Million Reasons To Start Exercising
    Prevent and Treat Tennis Elbow
    Erectile Dysfunction in Young Men
    Difference Between OA and RA
    Disabilities and the Workplace
    Reduce Eye Strain
    Reducing Workplace Injuries
    Healthy Tips to Manage Your Weight
    Foods for Athletic
    Muscle cramps
    SUBACROMIAL IMPINGEMENT SYNDROME
    Leg Lengthening
    Height Increasing Exercises
    Exercises for a healthy spine
    Exercise and Heart Disease
    Children Hip Pain
    Hip Pain in Children
    FLAT FOOT
    KNOCK KNEES and BOW LEGS
    Intoe gait - pigeon toed
    DEVELOPMENTAL HIP DYSPLASIA - DDH
    SHOULDER OSTEOARTHRITIS
    RECURRENT SHOULDER INSTABILITY / DISLOCATION
    ACROMIOCLAVICULAR JOINT OSTEOARTHRITIS
    FROZEN SHOULDER
    ROTATOR CUFF TEAR
    Take Care of Your Health
    Exercising with Diabetes – Take Care of your Feet!
    Low Back Pain Exercise Guide
    Nerve Injuries
    Pelvic Floor Dysfunction and Rehabilitation
    10Common Mistakes Made While Strength Training
    Physiotherapy websites
    Bone Health
    Components of Physical Fitness
    Muscle pain
    Polymyalgia rheumatica
    Facial palsy
    stroke physical therapy
    December 3 -World Disabled Day
    World Diabetes Day
    ageing pains
    What to Expect at a Physical Therapy Visit
    CRPS type1
    TMJ Disorders
    student syndrome
    Avoid Common Gym Injuries
    Obesity
    extrapyramidal syndrome symptoms
    ضيق القناة الفقارية و انزلاق الفقرات
    Runner’s Knee
    Chondromalacia Patellae
    Patello-Femoral Syndrome
    Baker’s cyst
    Ruptured Tendon
    Top Reasons Why Weight Loss Is Important
    Piriformis Syndrome Exercises
    Sprains and strains
    “shin splints ”properly termed MTSS
    Common Mistakes While Strength Training
    Regular Exercise to Reduce Stress
    Ruptured Disc

 

 

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